Dental Crowns: Understanding Types, Benefits, Procedure, and Maintenance

February 14, 20230

Dental crowns play a vital role in protecting and restoring damaged or decayed teeth. They are versatile and durable solutions that can improve the appearance, strength, and function of teeth. Whether you need a crown for cosmetic reasons or for restoring a damaged tooth, it is important to choose the right type of crown for your specific needs and to work with a trusted and experienced dental professional.

A dental crown, also known as a cap, is a type of dental restoration used to cover and protect a damaged or decayed tooth. Crowns can be made from a variety of materials, including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of materials, and are custom-made to fit over a damaged tooth. They are designed to improve the appearance, strength, and function of the tooth, and to help prevent further damage.

Crowns are typically indicated when a tooth has suffered significant damage or decay, and a filling is not enough to restore its function. For example, a crown may be recommended for a tooth that has been broken, has a large cavity, or has undergone a root canal procedure. Crowns can also be used for cosmetic purposes, to improve the appearance of a discolored, misshapen, or irregularly spaced tooth.

The process of receiving a dental crown typically involves two or more dental visits. During the first visit, the dentist will examine the tooth, take X-rays, and prepare the tooth by removing any damaged or decayed tissue. Next, an impression is taken of the tooth and surrounding teeth, which is used to create a custom-made crown that fits perfectly over the prepared tooth.

In the meantime, the patient will wear a temporary crown to protect the prepared tooth and maintain its function. At the second visit, the dentist will remove the temporary crown and place the permanent crown, checking to ensure that it fits properly and makes contact with the surrounding teeth. If necessary, the dentist will make any adjustments to the crown to ensure that it is comfortable and functional.

Types of Dental Crowns and Their Characteristics

There are several types of dental crowns to choose from, including porcelain, ceramic, metal, and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns. Each type of crown has its advantages and disadvantages, and the best type of crown for a particular patient will depend on the specific needs of the tooth and the patient’s preferences.

Porcelain crowns are made from high-quality dental ceramics and are designed to match the color, translucency, and reflectivity of natural teeth. Porcelain crowns are considered to be the most esthetic option and are typically recommended for front teeth or teeth that are visible when the patient smiles. However, porcelain is a brittle material and is more likely to crack or chip than other types of crowns.

Ceramic crowns are similar to porcelain crowns but are made from a stronger, more durable ceramic material. Ceramic crowns are a good choice for patients who are concerned about porcelain crowns’  strength and durability. However, ceramic crowns are more difficult to fabricate and may require more time to prepare and place.

Metal crowns, such as gold or base metal alloys, are the strongest type of dental crowns. Metal crowns are often recommended for molars, which experience a great deal of chewing force, or for patients who grind their teeth. However, metal crowns are the least esthetic option, and are not typically recommended for front teeth or teeth that are visible when the patient smiles.

PFM crowns are made from a combination of porcelain and metal, and offer the strength of metal crowns with the esthetics of porcelain crowns. PFM crowns are a good choice for patients who are looking for a balance of esthetics and function and are typically recommended for back teeth or teeth that are not easily visible.

Good Oral Hygiene for Maintaining the Appearance and Function of Dental Crowns

Regardless of the type of crown selected, dental crowns require good oral hygiene to maintain their appearance and function.

  • Brush and floss regularly: Brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing daily can help remove plaque and food particles that can lead to decay and gum disease. Make sure to brush gently around the base of the crown to avoid damaging it.
  • Use an antiseptic mouthwash: An antiseptic mouthwash can help kill bacteria and freshen your breath. Rinse your mouth with mouthwash at least once a day to help prevent plaque buildup and gum disease.
  • Visit your dentist regularly: Regular dental check-ups and cleanings are important for maintaining the health of your crowns and your overall oral health. Your dentist will be able to detect any issues with your crowns and address them before they become more serious.
  • Avoid hard and crunchy foods: Hard and crunchy foods can put a lot of pressure on your crowns and cause them to crack or break. Avoid foods such as ice, popcorn, and hard candy to help protect your crowns.
  • Avoid bad habits: Habits such as grinding your teeth, biting your nails, and chewing on pens or pencils can put a lot of stress on your crowns and cause them to become damaged or dislodged. Try to avoid these habits to keep your crowns in good condition.

Placement Techniques for Dental Crowns

There are several techniques for placing dental crowns, including the traditional two-visit method and the same-day or one-visit technique. The choice of technique depends on the individual patient’s needs and circumstances.

The traditional two-visit technique involves two appointments. During the first appointment, the dentist will prepare the damaged or decayed tooth by removing any decay and reshaping it to make room for the crown. An impression of the prepared tooth and the surrounding teeth will be taken and sent to a dental laboratory for the fabrication of the custom crown. A temporary crown will be placed to protect the prepared tooth until the permanent crown is ready. During the second appointment, the permanent crown will be placed and adjusted for a comfortable fit.

The same-day or one-visit technique, also known as chairside CAD/CAM, involves the use of advanced technology to create and place the crown in one visit. The dentist will prepare the damaged or decayed tooth, take a digital impression of the tooth, and use computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology to design and fabricate the custom crown. The crown will then be placed and adjusted for a comfortable fit, all in one appointment.

Another placement technique is called the cement-retained technique. This technique involves the placement of a small metal post into the prepared tooth, which acts as an anchor for the crown. The crown is then cemented onto the post, providing a strong and secure hold. This technique is often used for molars and other teeth in the back of the mouth that endure heavy biting and chewing forces.

Ultimately, the choice of placement technique will depend on the individual patient’s needs, such as the extent of tooth damage or decay, the location of the damaged tooth, and the patient’s overall dental health. The dentist will discuss the options with the patient and recommend the best technique for their specific case.

Conclusion: Is a Dental Crown Right for You?

In conclusion, dental crowns can be a highly effective solution for a variety of dental problems, including broken or severely damaged teeth, decay, and discoloration. They can also be used to support dental bridges and dentures. While porcelain crowns are popular for their natural appearance, there are many other materials to choose from, including gold, resin, and porcelain-fused-to-metal. The best way to determine if a dental crown is right for you is to consult with a skilled and experienced dentist. During this consultation, your dentist will examine your mouth, discuss your specific needs and goals, and recommend the best course of action for you. Whether you’re looking to restore your smile, improve your oral health, or both, a dental crown could be just what you need.

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